Publications and Research Articles

Summer 2015
Winter 2015
Summer 2014
Summer 2013
Winter 2013

Summer 2012

Winter 2012



Organic Dairy Farming (2006)NEW
Jody Padgham, Editor
A Belizean Rain Forest- The Community Baboon Sanctuary
by Dr. Robert Horwich and Dr. Jonathan Lyon


Community Conservation researchers have published and stimulated publications in a number of professional journals. A selected list of related topics is given below.
Community Conservation
Primate Ecology and Behavior
Crane Reintroduction
Turtle Ecology and Conservation
Infant Development
Avian Behavior & Ecology

Community Conservation

*NEW*Osei, D., Horwich, R.H., and Pittman, J.M. 2015. First Sightings of the Roloway Monkey (Cercopithecus diana rollaway) in Ghana in Ten Years and the Status of Other Primates in Southwestern Ghana. African Primates 10:25-40. (download pdf)
*NEW*Robert H. Horwich, Sam Shanee, Noga Shanee, Arnab Bose, Mark
Fenn and Joydeep Chakraborty. 2015. Creating Modern Community Conservation Organizations and Institutions to Effect Successful Forest Conservation Change, Chapter 6 in Precious Forests - Precious Earth, Dr. Miodrag Zlatic (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-2175-6, InTech, DOI: 10.5772/61133.(download pdf)
Anonymous. 1998. Transcript of Stakeholders' Workshop, Sarstoon-Temash National Park, February 22, 1997, Community Center Barranco Village, Toledo District, Belize, Producciones de la Hamaca, Caye Caluker, Belize, and Community Conservation Consultants, Gays Mills, Wisconsin, 39 pp. (download pdf)
Anonymous. 1989. Belizeans Conserve Their Howler Monkeys. International Primate Protection League Newsletter, 16(1):12. (download pdf)
*NEW* Allendorf, T., R. Das, A. Bose, B. Ray, K.D. Chaudhuri, S. Brock, R.H. Horwich. 2013. Motivations of the community forest protection forces of the Manas Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India. International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology. DOI: 10.1080/13504509.2013.816890 (download pdf)
Bernstein, Scott E. 2005. Defining and Building Community Capacity for Co-Management of Protected Areas in Belize. Master's Thesis. University of Wisconsin-Madison, Gaylord Nelson Institute for Environmental Studies. Contact: or (download pdf)
Bernstein, Scott E. 2005. Thirteen Training Objectives for Community-based Conservation. (Expanded description of the 13 training objectives identified in above Master's Thesis.) 3 pgs. (download pdf)
Bernstein, Scott E. 2005. Training Chart. (Chart comparing 6 evaluation/training methods to derive 13 training objectives identified in above Master's Thesis.) 2 pgs. (download pdf)
Bider, Jeanette J. 1997. Avian Use of Tropical Gallery Forest Patches in North-central Belize. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Arkansas.
Bruner, G.H. 1993. Evaluating a Model of Private-ownership Conservation: Ecotourism in the Community Baboon Sanctuary in Belize. M.S. Thesis, Georgia Institute of Technology.
Hartup, B.K. 1994. Community Conservation in Belize: Demography, Resource Use, and Attitudes of Participating Landowners. Biological Conservation, 69: 235-241
Hartup, B.K. 1989. An Alternative Conservation Model for Tropical Areas: The Community Baboon Sanctuary. M.S. Thesis (Land Resources), University of Wisconsin, Madison.
*NEW* Horwich, R.H., Das, R. and Bose, A. 2013. Conservation and current status of the golden langur in Assam, India with reference to Bhutan. Primate Conservation 2013 (27): 1-7(download pdf)
*NEW* Horwich, R.H., J. Lyon, A. Bose and Jones, C.B. 2012. Chapter 14, Preserving biodiversity and ecosystems: catalyzing conservation contagion. In: Deforestation Around the World. (ed. P. Moutinho), pp.283-318, InTech Rijeky, Croatia (INTECHOPEN.COM) (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., J. Lyon, A. Bose. 2011. What Belize Can Teach Us about Grassroots Conservation. Solutions, Vol. 2 Issue 3 pp. 51-58. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., R. Islari, A. Bose, B. Dey, M. Moshahary, N.K. Dey, R. Das, and J. Lyon. 2010. Community Protection of the Manas Biosphere Reserve in Assam, India, and the Endangered golden langur Trachypithecus geei. Oryx 44(2): 252-260. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and J. Lyon. 2007. Community Conservation: Practioners' Answer to Critics. Oryx, 41(3), 376-385. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 2005. Communities Saving Wisconsin Birds: North and South. The Passenger Pigeon (Vol. 67, No. 1): 85-98. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 2005. (bi-lingual) A Landowners Guide to Relevant Environmental Law in Papua New Guinea. Written for the Communities of the YUS Local Level Government, Kabwum Distrik, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea and the Tree Kangaroo Conservation Program. Community Conservation, Gays Mills, WI: 72pp. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 2005. (bi-lingual) Buk bilong ol Lo bilong lukautim Graun na Bus long Papua Niugini. Dispela buk em i buk bilong ol Komuniti insait long YUS Lokal Leval Gavman, Kabwum Distrik, Morobe Provins, Papua Niugini wantaim ol lain bilong Tri Kengeru Konsevesen Progrem. Community Conservation, Gays Mills, WI: 72pp. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., J. Lyon, and Scott Bernstein. 2004. An Evaluation Tool for Internal and External Assessments of Community-Based Conservation Projects. Unplublished Manuscript. 28pp. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and J. Lyon. 1999. Rural Ecotourism as a Conservation Tool. Tourism Development in the Critical Environments, T.V. Singh (ed.), Cognizant Communication Corp., NY, pp. 102-119. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and J. Lyon. 1998. Community-Based Development as a Conservation Tool: The Community Baboon Sanctuary and the Gales Point Manatee Project. Timber, Tourism and Temples, Conservation and Development in the Maya Forest of Belize, Guatemala and Mexico. R.B. Primack, D. Bray, H.A. Galetti, and I. Ponciano (eds.), Island Press, Covelo, CA. pp. 343-363. (download pdf)(en enspanol, descarga pdf aqui)
Horwich, R.H. 1998. Effective Solutions for Howler Conservation. International Journal of Primatology, 19(3): 579-598. (link to abstract)
Horwich, R.H. and M. Jones. 1998. Wildlife Conservation Crosses International Borders. Journal of Wildlife Rehabilitation, 21(3-4): 29-30. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1997. Effective Solutions for Howler Conservation. International Journal of Primatology . Vol. 19, No. 3, 1998(download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1995. Making a Difference. Bring Back the Birds. R. Greenberg and J. Reaser (eds.), Stackpole Books, Mechanicsburg, PA. pp. 84-87. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and J. Lyon. 1995. Multi-Level Conservation and Education at the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize. Conserving Wildlife: International Education and Communication Approaches. S.K. Jacobson (ed.), Columbia University Press, NY. pp. 235-253. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1994. Community Conservation Consultants - Catalysts for Rural Conservation. Neotropical Primates, 2(2): 24-26. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and B. Boardman. 1993. Community Conservation and Ecotourism Gayles Point Manatee. Belize Review (April): 14-20. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1993. Community Sanctuaryies: Present and Future Goals. Estudios Primatologicos en Mexico. A Estrada, E. Rodriguez-Luna, R. Lopez-Wilchis, and R. Coates-Estrada (eds.), Biblioteca Universidad Veracruzana. pp. 357-359. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., D. Murray, E. Saqui, J. Lyon, and D. Godfrey. 1993. Ecotourism and Community Development: A View from Belize. Ecotourism, A Guide for Planners and Managers. K. Lindberg and D.E. Hawkins (eds.), The Ecotourism Society, Bennington, VT. pp. 152-168. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and J. Lyon. 1993. Tropical Forest Fragments and Black Howler Monkey Conservation in Belize. Forest Remnants in the Tropical Landscape: Benefits and Policy Implications. R. Greenberg (ed.), Smithsonian Migratory Bird Center, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. pp. 69-70. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1990. How to Develop a Community Sanctuary - An Experimental Approach to the Conservation of Private Lands. Oryx, 24: 95-102. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1988. The Community Baboon Sanctuary: An Approach to the Conservation of Private Lands, Belize. Saving the Tropical Forests. J. Gradwohl and R. Greenberg (eds.), Earthscan Publication Ltd., London. pp 72-75. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1987. Community-based Sanctuary for the Black Howler Monkey. Honourable Mention, The Rolex Awards for Enterprise - 1987. Exerpt from: Spirit of Enterprise, The 1987 Rolex Awards, Van Nostrand Reinhold Ltd., Berkshire, England, pp. 436-438. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1986. A Community Baboon Sanctuary in Belize. Primate Conservation, 7: 15-17. (download pdf)
Jones, C.B. and R.H. Horwich. 2005. Constructive Criticism of Community-Based Conservation. Conservation Biology, Letters, 19(4): 990-991. (download pdf)
Jones, C.B. and J. Young. 2004. Hunting Restraint by Creoles at the Community Baboon Sanctuary, Belize: A Preliminary Survey. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 7(2):127-141. (download pdf)
Lavendel, B. 2000. The Father of Community Conservation. Animals, 133(13):17,35. (download pdf)
Lindberg, K. and J. Enriquez. 1994. An Analysis of Ecotourism's Economic Contribution to Conservation and Development in Belize. World Wildlife Fund, Washington D.C., two volumes.
Lipske, M. 1992. How a Monkey Saved the Jungle. International Wildlife, 22(1):38-43. (download pdf)
Long, V.H. 1994. Techniques for Socially Sustainable Tourism Development: Lessons from Mexico. Tourism and Sustainable Development: Monitoring, Planning and Managing, J.G. Nelson, R. Butler and G. Wall (eds.), Dept of Geography Publication Series No. 37, University of Waterloo, pp. 201-218.
Long, V.H. 1993. Monkey Business: Mixing Business With the Environment. Business Mexico, January: 23, 26. (download pdf)
Long, V.H. 1993. Nature Tourism: Environmental Salvation or Environmental Stress? Leisure and Tourism: Social and Environmental Change, A.J. Veal, P. Johnson and G. Cushman (eds.), World Leisure and Recreation Association, Sharbot Lake, Ontario. pp. 615-623.
Long, V.H. 1992. Tourism Development, Conservation and Anthropology: A Necessary Mix. Practicing Anthropology, 14(2):14-17.
Lyon, J. and R.H. Horwich. 1996. Modification of Tropical Forest Patches for Wildlife Protection and Community Conservation in Belize. Forest Patches in Tropical Landscapes, J. Shelhas and R. Greenberg (eds.), Island Press, Washington D.C., pp 205-230. (download pdf)
Wyman, M.S., Stein, T.V., Southworth, J. & Horwich, R.H. 2011. Does population increase equate to conservation success? Conservation and Society, 9(3):216-228. (download pdf)

Primate Ecology and Behavior

Biswas, J., D.K. Borah, A. Das, J. Das, P.C. Bhattacharjee, S.M. Mohnot, R.H. Horwich. 2011. The Enigmatic Arunchal Macaque: Its Biogeography, Biology and Taxonomy in Northeastern India. American Journal of Primatology, 73:1-16. (download pdf)
Brockett, R.C., R.H. Horwich and C.B. Jones. 2005. Hand-Holding by Belizean Black Howler Monkeys: Intentional Communication in a Neotropical Primate. Folia Primatol, Brief Report, 76: 227-230. (download pdf)
Brockett, R.C., R.H. Horwich, and C.B. Jones.  2000.  Female Dispersal in the Belizean Black Howling Monkey (Alouatta pigra).  Neotropical Primates, 8(1): 32-34. (download pdf)
Brockett, R.C., R.H. Horwich and C.B. Jones. 2000. A Model for the Interpretation of Grooming Patterns Applied to the Belizean Black Howling Monkey (Alouatta pigra). Primate Report 56: 23-32. (download pdf)
Brockett, R.C., R.H. Horwich and C.B. Jones. 2000. Reproductive Seasonality in the Belizean Black Howling Monkey (Alouatta pigra). Neotropical Primates, 8(4): 136-138. (download pdf)
Brockett, R.C., R.H. Horwich, and C.B. Jones.  1999.  Disappearance of Infants Following Male Takeovers in the Belizean Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra)Neotropical Primates, 7(3): 86-88. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., F. Koontz, E. Saqui, L. Ostro, S. Silver, and K. Glander. 2002. Translocation of Black Howler Monkeys in Belize. Re-introduction News, 21: 10-12. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., R.C. Brockett, R.A. James, and C.B. Jones. 2001. Population Growth in the Belizean Black Howling Monkey (Alouatta pigra). Neotropical Primates, 9(1): 1-7. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., R.C. Brockett, R.A. James, and C.B. Jones. 2001. Population Structure and Group Productivity of the Belizean Black Howling Monkey (Alouatta pigra): Implications for Female Sociology. Primate Report 61:47-65. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., R.C. Brockett, R.A. James, and C.B. Jones. 2000. Alternative Male Reproductive Behaviors in the Belizean Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra). Neotropical Primates, 8(3): 95-98. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., F. Koontz, E. Saqui, H. Saqui, and K. Glander. 1993. A Reintroduction Program for the Conservation of the Black Howler Monkey in Belize. Endangered Species Update, 10(6): 1-6. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1989. The Geographic Distribution of the Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Central America and Efforts to Conserve it in Belize. Primatologia en Mexico: Comportamiento, ecologia, approvechamiento y conservacion de primates, A. Estrada, R. Lopez-Wilchis, and R. Coates-Estrada (eds.), Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana, Mexico. pp. 191-201. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1989. Status of Primatology in Belize. Boletin Primatologico Latinoamericana, 1: 6-14. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1986. Geographical Distribution of the Black Howler (Alouatta pigra) in Central America. Primates, 27(1): 53-62. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1984. Geographic Distribution and Status of the Black Howler Monkey. IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group Newsletter. 4(March): 25-27. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1983. Breeding Behaviors in the Black Howler Monkey, (Alouatta pigra) of Belize. Primates, 24(2): 222-230 (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1983. Roaring Rhythms in Black Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra) of Belize. Primates, 24(2): 290-296. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1983. Species Status of the Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra) of Belize. Primates, 24(2): 288-289. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1980. Behavioral Rhythms in the Nilgiri Langur, Presbytis johnii. Primates, 21(2):220-229. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1976. The Whooping Display in Nilgiri Langurs: An Example of Daily Fluctuations Superimposed on a General Trend. Primates, 17(4): 419-431. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1972. Home Range and Food Habits of the Nilgiri Langur, Presbytis johnii. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 69 (2): 255-267. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and L. LaFrance. 1972. The Mountain Guereza. Field Museum of Natural History Bulletin, 43(11):2-5. (download pdf)
James, R.A. 1992. Genetic Variations in Belizean Black Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Ph.D. Thesis, Rutgers University.
Kitchen, D.M., R.H. Horwich, and R.A. James. 2004. Subordinate Male Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra) Responses to Loud Calls: Experimental Evidence for the Effects of Intra-Group Male Relationships and Age. Behavior, 141(6):703-723. (download pdf)
Koontz, F., E. Saqui, H. Saqui, K. Glander, C. Koontz, W. Westrom. 1994 Reintroduction of Black Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra) into the Cockscomb Basin Wildlife Sanctuary, Belize. AZA Annual Conference Proceedings, Wheeling, West Virginia, American Zoo and Aquarium Association, pp. 104-111. (download pdf)
Koontz, F. 1993. Trading Places. Wildlife Conservation, 96(3):52-59. (download pdf)

Ostro, L.E.T., S.C. Silver, F.W. Koontz, R.H. Horwich and R. Brockett. 2001. Shifts in Social Structure of Black Howler (Alouatta pigra) Groups Associated with Natural and Experimental Variation in Population Density. International Journal of Primatology, 22(5):733-748. (download pdf )
Ostro, L.E.T., S.C. Silver, F.W. Koontz, T.P. Young, and R.H. Horwich. 1998. Ranging Behavior of Translocated and Established Groups of Black Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in Belize, Central America. Biological Conservation, 87:181-190. (download pdf)
Schneider, E.C., L.F. Hunter, and R.H. Horwich. 1999. Adoption of a Young Juvenile in Black Howler Monkeys (Alouatta pigra). Neotropical Primates, 7(2):47-51. (download pdf)
Silver, S.C., L.E.T Ostro, C.P. Yeager, and R.H. Horwich. 1998. The Feeding Ecology of the Black Howler Monkey (Alouatta pigra) in Northern Belize. American Journal of Primatology, Wiley-Liss, Inc., 45: 263-279. (download pdf)
World Wildlife Fund. 1997. Howler Monkey. 10pgs. (download pdf)

Crane Reintroduction

Hartup, B.K. and R.H. Horwich.  1994. Early Parental Care and Chick Development in a Cross-Fostering Trial with White-Naped (Grus vipio) and Greater Sandhill (Grus canadensis tabida) Cranes.  Bird Behavior, 10: 21-27. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 2001. Developing a Migratory Whoooping Crane Flock. Proceedings of the 2001 North American Crane Workshop, 8:85-94. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1997. Crane Reintroductions Reviewed. Re-Introduction News, 13:13-15. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1996. Imprinting, Attachment, and Behavioral Development in Cranes. Cranes: Their Biology, Husbandry, and Conservation; Chapter 6, Behavior Management, D.H. Ellis, G.F. Gee, and C.M. Mirande (eds.), National Biological Service/International Crane Foundation, Washington DC & Baraboo, WI. pp. 117-122. (downloand pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1989. Use of Surrogate Parental Models and Age Periods in a Successful Release of Hand-reared Sandhill Cranes. Zoo Biology, 8:379-390. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., John Wood and Ray Anderson. 1988. Release of Sandhill Crane Hand-reared with Artificial Stimuli. Proceedings of the 1988 North American Crane Workshop. pp. 255-261. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1987. Behavioral Development in the Red-Crowned Crane (Grus japonensis). Zoo Biology, 6:379-389. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1986. Reintroduction of Sandhill Cranes to the Wild. The ICF Bugle, 12(4):1, 4-5. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1985.  Crane Rearing Techniques.  Newsletter of the Wildlife Preservation Trust: On the Edge, 28: 1,7. (download pdf)

Turtle Ecology and Conservation

Polisar, J. 1996. Repoductive Biology of a Flood-Season Nesting Freshwater Turtle of the Northern Neotropics: Dermatemys mawii in Belize. Chelonian Conservation and Biology 2(1): 13-25. (download pdf)
Polisar, J. 1995. River Turtle Reproductive Demography and Eploitation Patterns in Belize: Implications for Management. Vida Silvestre Neotropical , 4(1): 10-19. (download pdf)
Polisar, J. and R.H. Horwich. 1994. Conservation of the Large, Economically Important River Turtle Dermatemys mawii in Belize. Conservation Biology, 8(2): 338-340. (download pdf)
Polisar, J. 1992. Reproductive Biology and Exploitation of the Central American River Turtle Dermatemys mawii in Belize, Central America . M.S. Thesis. University of Florida, Gainesville.
Smith, G.W., K.L. Eckhart, and J.P. Gibson. 1992. WIDECAST Sea Turtle Recovery Action Plan for Belize, K.L. Eckhart (ed.), CEP Technical Report 18, UNEP Caribbean Environment Programme, Kingston,Jamaica.

Infant Development

Horwich, R.H. 1989. Cyclic Development of Contact Behavior in Apes and Humans. Research Report, Primates, 30(2): 269-279. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., and K. Gebhard. 1986. Relation of Allomothering to Infant Age in Howlers, Alouatta pigra, Old World Monkeys. In: Current Perspectives in Primate Social Dynamics, Part 1, Chapter 5, Social Organization and Behavioral Development, D.M. Taub and F.A. King (eds.), Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, Inc., New York, NY, pp. 66-88. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., C. Kitchen, M. Wangel, and R. Ruthe. 1983. Behavioral Development in Okapis and Giraffes. Zoo Biology, 2: 105-125. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H., S.J.H. Cogswell, J. Burrows, an N. Mitchell. 1982. Seasonal Variation in Mother-Dauther Groupings in Siberian Ibex (Capra ibex). Zoo Biology, 1: 345-354. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and C. Wurman. 1978. Socio-Maternal Behaviors in Responses to an Infant Birth in Colobus guereza. Primates, 19(4): 693-713. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. R. van Dyke, and S.J.H. Cogswell. 1977. Regressive Growth Periods as a Mechanism for Herd Formation in Siberian Ibex (Capra ibex). Zool. Garten N.F., 47(1): 59-68. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. and D. Manski. Maternal Care and Infant Transfer in Two Species of Colobus Monkeys. Primates, 16(1): 49-73. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1974. Development of Behaviors in a Male Spectacled Langur (Presbytis obscurus).  Primates, 15(2-3): 151-178.  (download pdf)
_____.  1974.  Regressive Periods in Primate Behavioral Development with Reference to Other Mammals.  Primates, 15(2-3): 141-149.  (download pdf)

Avian Behavior
Ficken, R.W., P.E. Matthiae, & R.H. Horwich.  1971.  Eye Marks in Vertebrates: Aids to Vision.  Science, 173(4000): 936-939.  (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1969. Behavioral Ontogeny of the Mockingbird. The Wilson Bulletin, 81(1): 87-93. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H. 1966. Feather Development as a Means of Aging Young Mockingbirds (Mimus polyglottos). Bird-Banding, 37(4): 257-267. (download pdf)
Horwich, R.H.  1965.  An Ontogeny of Wing-Flashing in the Mockingbird with Reference to Other Behaviors.  The Wilson Bulletin, 77(3): 264-281.  (download pdf)

Horwich, R.H.  1972.  The Ontogeny of Social Behavior in the Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).  Advances in Ethology (8),  103 pp.   (email for copy)